Ciekawostki podatkowe dla przedsiębiorczych w Wielkiej Brytanii

utworzono . w Prawo i Praca

Firmę w Wielkiej Brytanii założymy w dobę. Na odprowadzenie należnego państwu podatku przedsiębiorca ma kolejny rok. A jeśli dochody firmy są niewielkie może liczyć na pomoc finansową ze strony państwa.

Osoby prowadzące w Polsce własną firmę napotykają na swojej drodze wiele barier utrudniających prowadzenie działalności, takich jak wysokie podatki i skomplikowaną biurokrację. Na Wyspach sytuacja jest inna, ponieważ mali przedsiębiorcy mogą liczyć na wsparcie ze strony państwa. Jakie udogodnienia, a jakie przeszkody czekają na polskich przedsiębiorców w Wielkiej Brytanii?

Samozatrudniony (self-employed) na Wyspach co roku rozlicza się z podatku dochodowego po 5 kwietnia i ma na to czas do 31 stycznia następnego roku kalendarzowego. - W praktyce, obecny rok podatkowy 2012/2013 w Wielkiej Brytanii trwa od 6 kwietnia 2012 r. do 5 kwietnia 2013 r. Brytyjski samozatrudniony musi złożyć deklarację podatkową do 31 stycznia 2014. Przez cały ten okres przedsiębiorca ma czas na obracanie oraz gromadzenie środków finansowych - wyjaśnia Monika Sharma, właścicielka londyńskiego biura księgowo-doradczego Mega Business Services Ltd. Takie odroczenie w czasie uregulowania należności podatkowych zaproponowane przez brytyjskiego fiskusa ma niebagatelne znaczenie szczególnie dla osób rozpoczynających działalność gospodarczą. W Polsce samozatrudniony niestety nie ma tak komfortowej sytuacji. Już od początku musi miesięcznie lub kwartalnie płacić zaliczki na podatek dochodowy, a na koniec roku podatkowego i tak musi złożyć całe zeznanie, lub w najgorszym przypadku dopłacić różnicę.

Brytyjski podatek od dóbr i usług oprócz korzystniejszego systemu rozliczania z fiskusem jest niższy niż w Polsce. Obecnie obowiązują 3 stawki – standardowa 20-proc., zredukowana 5-proc. oraz zerowa.

System podatkowy na Wyspach może zaskoczyć także jednym, bardzo oryginalnym i nieznanym w Polsce rozwiązaniem. Chodzi o tzw. flat rate, czyli uproszczony, dosłownie „płaski” sposób rozliczenia podatku VAT. Stawki do zwrotu są różne i zależą od reprezentowanej branży. Zostały opracowane przez brytyjskich urzędników bazujących na abstrakcyjnym modelu firmy, dla której została wyliczona część przychodów i wydatków, jaką stanowią produkty objęte VAT podstawowym, zredukowanym i zerowym. Należy jednak pamiętać, że flat rate nie dla wszystkich jest korzystny. Jeśli koszty danej firmy zawierają VAT, a przychody w całości lub w znacznej mierze nie są nim obłożone, flat rate może oznaczać wpłacanie państwu większej kwoty, niż wynikałoby to z dokładnej księgowości. Nowopowstałe firmy w pierwszym roku w modelu flat rate uzyskują jednoprocentową obniżkę. Rozwiązanie to jest bardzo popularne wśród przedsiębiorców z racji prostszej i tańszej księgowości oraz możliwych zysków w postaci płacenia mniejszego podatku. W tym modelu nie ma konieczności dokładnego monitorowania i ewidencjowania, a następnie wyliczania należnego państwu podatku VAT. Daje to więcej czasu i energii na prowadzenie biznesu, zmniejsza ryzyko pomyłek w rozliczeniu oraz ewentualnych kar z HM Revenue&Customs (odpowiednik polskiego urzędu skarbowego), a także ułatwia planowanie wydatków, ponieważ wiadomo jaki stały procent przychodu należy oddać fiskusowi co kwartał.

Wspieranie własnej przedsiębiorczości, głównie tej jednoosobowej, to jeden z atutów, jakie oferuje brytyjski rynek pracy i system podatkowy. Wielka Brytania znana jest z rozbudowanego systemu socjalnego, a rząd wspiera również tych samozatrudnionych, którzy zarabiają niewiele. Osoby bezdzietne powyżej 25 roku życia będące self-employed o niewielkich dochodach, a także młodsze i posiadające dzieci, mogą liczyć na Working Tax Credit, czyli zasiłek. Jego wysokość uzależniona jest od tygodniowego czasu pracy, rocznych zarobków, sytuacji rodzinnej, a także od wysokości i czasu pracy partnera.

W Wielkiej Brytanii osobom niewywiązującym się z obowiązków prawno-podatkowych wobec państwa grożą kary finansowe. Jednakże brytyjskie urzędy, w przeciwieństwie do polskich, są otwarte na dialog. Jeśli osoba dysponuje mocnymi dowodami na to, że wina nie leży po jej stronie, może zgłosić się osobiście lub telefonicznie do urzędu i poprosić o cofnięcie kary. - Powinniśmy przedstawić wiarygodne dokumenty potwierdzające, że opóźnienie w płatności nie nastąpiło z naszej winy lub nie mieliśmy na nie wpływu. Również w rozmowie telefonicznej możemy przekonać urzędnika do anulowania długu. W praktyce urzędy często przyznają rację przedsiębiorcom i zmniejszają lub cofają kary finansowe. Polscy przedsiębiorcy pracujący i mieszkający na Wyspach, którzy mają jeszcze niewielkie doświadczenie w prowadzeniu firmy zagranicą, chętnie korzystają z tego rozwiązania – dodaje Monika Sharma. Takiego problemu nie mają jedynie firmy obsługiwane przez biura księgowe, które pilnują terminów płatności. Doświadczone biuro księgowo-doradcze pomaga też negocjować z urzędnikami, jeśli zajdzie taka potrzeba.

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